Antibody therapies typically bind to targets found on multiple cell types (tumor vs healthy).  The target expression profile can directly contribute to efficacy and toxicity.


Target Cell

Non-Target Cell


Target Cell


Monoclonal antibodies can bind with high affinity to target cells to drive the desired biology (tumor reduction, immune activation, etc).

Non-Target Cell


Monoclonal antibodies can bind with high affinity to non- target cells and cause unintended toxicities

Target Cell


Invenra’s SNIPERs are designed such that binding to two targets with low monovalent affinity, but high avidity is required for specificity and efficacy.

Non-Target Cell


Invenra’s SNIPERs minimize binding to non-target cells and significantly reduce unwanted toxicity.

Monoclonal antibodies have exquisite binding specificity for the drug target, such that selective binding can be achieved for a single amino acid or post translational change.  Unfortunately, the drug target is not always specifically expressed in the location of the disease.  Expression of the drug target in healthy tissue can result in toxicity or loss of efficacy and decrease the potential therapeutic use of the antibody.  


The SNIPER™ approach utilizes unique target combinations, only found on the target cells, to improve target specificity.  SNIPERs™ are optimized to maximize the difference between the monovalent binding affinity to each target and the bivalent avidity to the target combination, creating a molecule that requires the presence of both targets on a single cell for binding.  The SNIPER™ technology can be generally applied to better direct ADCC, ADC, radiotherapies, or T-cells to target cells while avoiding healthy cells and the associated toxicity.